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Classical Turkish Music Composers

From the beginning of XVI. KTM Composers of the Period Until the End of the Century

The unique cultural history of the Turks generally begins with the "Altai Period". B.C. Altai-Turkish culture from the third millennium BC is also the determinant of Altai-Turkish music culture. The structure of the music of the early Turks was simple, but sincere and enthusiastic, with a mythical and epic character. Like every musical genre with its roots dating back to prehistoric times, Turkish music was initially of very low pitch. The melodies would circulate on two sounds at a certain interval. The number of frets used increased over time and gradually increased to three or four, leading to a four-act (tetratonic) formation, which is the most advanced stage of "premodal music", which is music with four or fewer acts. Music, which has a magical-religious-ceremonial feature called "Shaman Music", was used as a helper of magic (magic) and as a means of enchantment, not as a pleasure business for a long time. Music, which was under the influence and function of magic for a long time, was organized and institutionalized and took the image of a "tug team" as the first "military music ensemble" in the Hun khanate. During this period, the Turkish music sound system reached a pentatonic structure with five full pitches. Another feature of this period is the interaction with the musical cultures of China and Iran, in which the Silk Road played an active and important role in the mutual interaction with other cultures. During the Gokturks period, there were advances in Modal music, the pentatonic structure became more evident, the number of voices (pitch) increased and the melody expanded. The sounds (frets) in the tune are used at wide intervals. Music in the Uyghurs period has become one of the indispensable elements of state, society and individual life, religious and state ceremonies, feasts, feasts and entertainments and daily life by being much more developed, much more diversified and enriched in all respects compared to the Gokturks period. Plano Caprini says that in the meetings held at Batu Khan's palace in 1246, the Khan only sat while listening to music. The same observations are also found in the travel book of the famous traveler Marco Polo. It is stated that the Mongolian army sang while waiting for an attack order before the battle. Against the Westerners' persistent efforts to attribute Turkish music to Arabs and Iranians, Arabs said that there was no important music before Islam, that there were some monotonous melodies used in daily life as appropriate, that they were called "Hud'a". singing and music" section. After Islam, the Arab world took the first step on the path of empire, with the old cultures, especially the VIII. and IX. centuries, the remains of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization and the Turks. As cultural exchange became more frequent by taking new countries, he got to know a musical art that was in these places and was quite developed compared to those centuries. The acceptance of Islam by the Turks approximately IX. coincides with the end of the century. This ancient culture, which was moved to the West with great migrations before Islam, fused with the cultures there and caused the birth of different music genres. Another subject that will contribute to the researches of the source of Turkish Music with strong clues is our old musical instrument, the "Çeng". "It is very remarkable that both the rebap and the çeng are not Arabic or Persian instruments, as it is thought, but that they came from the Asian provinces, which were the homeland of Mevlana. Bela Bartok said that the most essential feature in Hungarian music is the five-voice system and that the Volga- He states that the melodies of İdil Çeremis and Northern Turks are the source of Hungarian music in terms of their five-voice characteristics. This system influenced Eskimo, Aztec and Inca music through the Bering Strait in terms of system, melody and instrument. Therefore, Adnan Saygun "Five-voice music is the hallmark of Turkish music." After the positive environment provided by the Abbasids, Turkish music opened up to the Islamic world with the Karahanlı and Ghaznavid domination, while it entered the Islamic world with the Great Seljuk sovereignty and the Great Turkish migration that took place thanks to this sovereignty. with vitality, mobility, diversity and richness. With this, it became the most effective music in the world. While focusing on the sources of Turkish music, it will be necessary to take a look at scientific research, the lives of those who made these researches, and the works they wrote. Because these people have helped our sound art to be developed by processing for centuries and to be placed on solid foundations built with mathematical and physical rules. At the beginning of these scientists is the famous Turkish philosopher Farabi.

» Farabi (870-950)

» Safi al-Din Abdul Mumin Urmavi (?-1294)

» Abdulkadir Meragi (1353?-1435)

» Gazi Giray Khan (1554-1607)

XVII. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

It is the century of great development of Turkish music. Composition and performance are very advanced. The line left in the 15th century in musicology is inaccessible, but valuable edvars continue to be written. The most famous one is the edvar of the young composer Prince Kantemiroğlu of Moldavia at the end of the century. Hundreds of instrumental works written with the abced notation attached to this work constitute very valuable material.

» Hafiz Post (1630?-1694)

XVIII. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

XVII. The great progress of Turkish music in the XVIII century. century, it continued at full speed. The great composers who had grown up fulfilled all the requirements of the classical school and remained loyal to the traditions, and continued to produce many works by adding some innovations they had made. Even in the first decade of this century, the "Classical Period" had reached its peak in the personality of the composer Itri.

» Itri (1640-1712)

» Nayi Osman Dede (1642?-1729)

» Zaharya Efendi (Mir Cemil) (?-1740?)

» Tanburi Mustafa Sergeant (1700?-1770)

» Tab'i Mustafa Efendi (1705?-1770?)

» Dilhayat Kalfa (1710-1780)

» Ali Nutki Dede (1762-1804)

XIX. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

XIX. century is a very important time period for both the East and the West. The "Classical Age" has ended, new artistic movements have developed according to new understandings and traditions, and works of different character have begun to be produced in fine arts branches such as literature, painting, music and sculpture. This trend, which came to Turkish cultural life with a delay of 30-40 years, showed its effect in Turkish music most clearly, had deep repercussions, and "Romantic Literature" was born in our musical art from the middle of the century.

» Numan Agha (1750?-1834)

» Haci Sadullah Agha (1760-1854)

» Sultan III. Selim (1761-1808)

» Abdulbaki Nasır Dede (1765-1821)

» Kemani Ali Agha (1765-1770? - 1830)

» Abdürrahim Kunhi Dede (1769-1831)

» Zeki Mehmed Agha (1776-1846)

» Hammami-zade İsmail Dede Efendi (1778-1845)

» Şakir Ağa (1779-1840)

» Sultan II. Mahmud Khan (1785-1839)

» Basmaci Abdi Efendi (1787-1851)

» Arif Mehmed Agha (1794?-1843)

» Dellal-zade İsmail Efendi (1797-1869)

» Mustafa İzzet Efendi (Kazasker) (1801-1876)

» Suyolcuzade Salih Efendi (1806-1862)

» Hashim Bey (1814-1868)

» Tanburi Büyük Osman Bey (1816-1885)

» Kömürcü-zade Hafız Mehmet Efendi (?-1885?)

» Rifat Bey (1820-1888)

» Zekai Dede (1825-1897)

» Nevres Pasha (1826-1872)

» Neyzen Salim Bey (1829-1884)

» Hacı Arif Bey (1831-1885)

» Nikogos Agha (1836-1885)

» Hacı Faik Bey (?-1890)

» Tanburi Ali Efendi (1836-1902)

» Mahmut Celaleddin Pasha (1839-1899)

» Neyzen Aziz Dede (1840?-1905)

» Civilized Aziz Efendi (1842-1895)

» Mehmet Celaleddin Dede Efendi (1848-1907)

» Shoghi Bey (1860-1891)

XX. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

XX. The developments and positive or negative efforts made in the name of Turkish Music in the time period from the beginning of the century to the present draw attention. Considering the form and curriculum at the Ankara State Conservatory in 1936, it was understood that the state would not take up this task. Darülelhan, which was tried in Istanbul and became a Turkish Music Conservatory, was later unsuccessfully transferred to the Istanbul Municipality and left to its own fate. At this time, "radio", a technical development, entered our country without delay. The same propaganda had its effect here as well, and the broadcast of Turkish Music was banned here as well. It was a beneficial development for our music history during these dates. For this development, we can say that our musical art has survived. Ankara Radio, which was put into service in 1938, acted like a conservatory in terms of its teaching staff, education system, understanding of discipline in art and seriousness, and trained artists with a contemporary understanding. A new order was given to musical performance, a library of notes was established, and a radio archive was created. A printing press was even set up in the radiohouse for a uniform notation system. These studies were abandoned for various reasons at the time when they would be fully productive. It is possible to find traces of this beautiful understanding in the working system of Ankara Radio even today. XX. Atatürk, who left his mark on 19th century Turkey, reminded Turks that he was Turkish, and made a series of "revolutions" by risking all kinds of risks to bring our country to the level of modernity, of course, could not ignore the characteristics of Turkishness and Turkish art. This great person did not want all traces of Turkish in every branch of art to be erased. It is possible to find traces of this thought in our paintings and architectural works that were produced at that time. Based on this idea, he established historical and linguistic institutions, and especially expressed the glorification of Turkish at every opportunity. As stated above, Atatürk aimed not to change civilization, but to raise our national assets to the level of contemporary civilization.

» Violin Tatyos Efendi (1858-1913)

» Kanuni Haci Arif Bey (1862-1911)

» Rahmi Bey (1864-1924)

» Muallim İsmail Hakkı Bey (1865-1927)

» Ahmet Avni Konuk (1868-1938)

» Ahmed Efendi (Ahmed Irsoy) (1869-1943)

» Khaled Lemi Atli (1869-1945)

» Altitude Elkutlu (1869-1948)

» Suphi Zühdü Ezgi (1869-1962)

» Rauf Yekta Bey (1871-1935)

» Tanburi Cemil Bey (1873-1916)

» Bimen Şen (1873-1943)

» Hüseyin Sadeddin Arel (1880-1955)

» Mehmed Fahri Kopuz (1882-1968)

» Suphi Ziya Özbekkan (1887-1966)

» Sedat Öztoprak (1890-1947)

» Ali Riza Sagman (1890-1965)

» Şerif Muhiddin Targan (1892-1967)

» Refik Fersan (1893-1965)

» Hafiz Sadeddin Kaynak (1895-1961)

» Zeki Arif Ataergin (1896-1964)

» Şerif İçli (1899-1956)

» Munir Nureddin Selcuk (1899-1981)

» Neveser Kökdeş (1900-1962)

» Yesari Asim Arsoy (1900-1992)

» Selahaddin Pinar (1902-1960)

» Osman Nihat Akin (1905-1959)

» Ferit Alnar (1906-1978)

» Emin Ongan (1906-1985)

» Tanburi Ömer Altug (1908-1965)

» Mehmet Resat Aysu (1910-1999)

» İsmail Baha Sürelsan (1912-1998)

» Selahattin İçli (1923-)

» Ferit Sidal (1925-2001)

» Dr. Nevzat Atlığ (1925-)

» Alaeddin Slowly (1926-)

» Tarik Kip (1927-2000)

» Avni Anil (1928-2008)

» Bekir Sitki Sezgin (1936-1996)

» Erol Sayan (1936-)

» Cinuçen Tanrıkorur (1938-2000)

» Selahattin Altinbas (1939-2003)

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