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CLASSIC TURKISH MUSIC

Polyphony in Music

The main factor preventing the implementation of an advanced style towards polyphony, which is an advanced and technical concept in music, has been the Turkish-Alafranga conflict that has been going on for a long time.

Of course, there is a need for new studies in the orientation towards the West, in the opening of a new era that takes Turkish music from its cultural vitality, national and social values. An art that neglects and denies its own culture cannot preserve its personality and existence. What is the way to be followed in the harmonizations to be made in order to spread the polyphonic Turkish music? First of all, according to certain rules, within a certain system, the promotion of polyphony comes first. The first solution that comes to mind is to avoid some pretentious essays that go against the traditions, and to include musical plays, for example, small operettas and musical movements that deal with folklore subjects. Music should be developed in an environment that will provide scientific and social benefit, with its national character and real values, which can be a means of education, beyond being a pleasure tradition and a means of entertainment that prioritizes the pleasure of the ear. The basis of education is unity and togetherness. It is to ensure unity and solidarity in the development of art and to bring education to a contemporary level. In fact, in Turkish music systems, there is a use of movements suitable for polyphony.

Does Turkish music, which has great value as monophonic, need polyphony? This may be considered depending on some circumstances somewhere. Since the sound riot and richness in the music of Itrî's and Dede's carries a spirit and richness of expression that does not need the polyphonic elements of the West, we preserve our classical works with all their values, as they are, and use polyphonic systems in accordance with contemporary rules, nevertheless our music has the appropriate polyphony in its own structure. It should be realized by making use of intervals from (tem) and creating new works. Only artists who know Turkish culture and music first, and then western culture and music well will do this.

While determining the real values that make up our national culture in terms of the structure, style and tonal characteristics and expression of Turkish music, it is absolutely necessary to avoid corrupting and pretentious movements. Small trials and musical movements can be realized by applying a system that is suitable for our understanding of national tradition and taste. While determining the basic principles for the development of Turkish music policy on solid foundations, knowing that the Turkish nation has a strong musical potential, in accordance with the rules of contemporary art and with a western-oriented understanding and understanding, Turkish music originates from the culture in its own structure, national and national and international values. Only in this way will it be possible to present our music with an artistic power derived from its social values and to raise our music to a level acceptable to western authorities. Here, there is progress on the illuminated path shown by the great ATATÜRK.

Western technique is the same for every society that has reached the civilized level. However, each society reveals its own personality by kneading it with its own structure and world of thought, national excitement and culture, and national music is thus nourished by the inspiration, power and spirit it receives from its own historical facts, traditions, art and culture.

It is not easy to suddenly accept polyphonic movements in societies whose ears are accustomed to a single voice. In the West, this did not happen all of a sudden. In the performance system consisting of male-female children, it was thought that different voices should be separated according to their categories, and the needs that emerged especially in the churches achieved success by making progress slowly but continuously and with perseverance. (XV. century)... In this age, called the age of polyphony, famous musicians were raised. Many of them have created famous works by making use of public sources. Among the measures that can be beneficial in the development of polyphonic movements, we should give priority to band concerts that Turkish people like to listen to, by choosing small pieces of western music that will not be completely foreign to the Turkish ear. Art, especially music, which is created by compulsion cannot be continuous.

When the Turkish mind of the great ATATÜRK thinks about music, he is not looking for a music that will give people a simple and temporary excitement. When music is mentioned, it means a music that finds the expression of our high feelings, life and memories. His words, in a sense, are a sign that the Turkish feeling, national enthusiasm and culture should be developed within western standards, with a system worthy of its own structure and nobility, and that it should be evaluated within these criteria.

There are, of course, systematic ways of working to accustom the Turkish ear to the Turkish ear, by making use of western techniques, in order to preserve the works of traditional Turkish music, which carry the national and social values and nobility, and on the other hand, to achieve success in a new Turkish art that all civilized communities will enjoy. It is a way to take advantage of our folk music, which is always put forward. While putting our folk songs into a polyphonic arrangement and choraling, it can be shown as the simplest and most accurate way to use the pitch intervals of the melodies harmonically, especially to benefit from the favorable structures of our folk instruments, completely separate from the conventional harmonic movements. For example, the pedal sounds of our instruments such as the Black Sea kemençe, tulumzurna, Çiftekaval and even baglama can be performed easily (quartet, quintet, octave), parallel tones, row walking and (tem) movements from national intervals. These movements have also been tried in the west. Many composers made extensive use of the folk music of their hometowns. They have produced symphonies, operas and orchestral works. While Beethoven was writing his third symphony, Eroika, he experimented with folk music to find new melodies.

The technical rules of art can be taken from the west. He stated that utilizing folklore values among innovation resources is the right side. How did the countries that have achieved advanced artistic superiority in modern music benefit from public resources? On the path they take, they have chosen the basic elements that will enable the birth and development of national breakthroughs with great care and attention. Here, the effect of various sources, including folklore, on the artist's consciousness of knowledge is in question.

Even if there is a way to process Turkish (tem) with the western tampere system, let's repeat that the most convenient movement makes use of the intervals in the structure of our folk music.

In Turkish music recently, the actuation of instrument groups in quartet, quintuple and octet intervals, although it is considered a stage (acapella), is not an order. In this style, it can be suggested to choose words and melodies that can be played and invoked as easily as possible, for example, as songs or ballads (acapella), or in an accompaniment arrangement, albeit simple, in polyphonic performance of instruments. It should be emphasized that it is not possible for a person who does not know or love his own music to produce an advanced Turkish musical piece, no matter how much an artist he is. Let us repeat that while composing Turkish music in accordance with the standards and rules of contemporary civilization, the important thing is to avoid any harmful effects on our national structure. In this case, Turkish music will go through new changes within its own values. And it will take its place in the western existence at a level that is compatible with its polyphony, national dignity, morals, feelings and traditions.

It is a fact that we as a nation yearn for an advanced music that blends and harmonizes with our national traditions. It will not be difficult to accustom the Turkish ear to polyphony with a normal education.

We have pointed out that among the examples to be taken, small harmonic imitations that will reveal the joke of folk music are useful for the traditional (traditional, orally transmitted) Turkish music to be polyphonic. The fact that Turkish music is combined with folk dances, which is an inseparable whole, can be considered as an advantage, not only in terms of its technical quality, but also in terms of cultural vitality, provided that our folk dances can be choreographed in a contemporary sense, and small and short game music can be made polyphonic with the movements we have mentioned above.

Source: www.kultur.gov.tr

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