top of page

CLASSIC TURKISH MUSIC

From the beginning of XVI. KTM Composers of the Period Until the End of the Century

The unique cultural history of the Turks generally begins with the "Altai Period". B.C. Altai-Turkish culture from the third millennium BC is also the determinant of Altai-Turkish music culture. The structure of the music of the early Turks was simple, but sincere and enthusiastic, with a mythical and epic character. Like every musical genre with its roots dating back to prehistoric times, Turkish music was initially of very low pitch. The melodies would circulate on two sounds at a certain interval. The number of frets used increased over time and gradually increased to three or four, leading to a four-act (tetratonic) formation, which is the most advanced stage of "premodal music", which is music with four or fewer acts. Music, which has a magical-religious-ceremonial feature called "Shaman Music", was used as a helper of magic (magic) and as a means of enchantment, not as a pleasure business for a long time. Music, which was under the influence and function of magic for a long time, was organized and institutionalized and took the image of a "tug team" as the first "military music ensemble" in the Hun khanate. During this period, the Turkish music sound system reached a pentatonic structure with five full pitches. Another feature of this period is the interaction with the musical cultures of China and Iran, in which the Silk Road played an active and important role in the mutual interaction with other cultures. During the Gokturks period, there were advances in Modal music, the pentatonic structure became more evident, the number of voices (pitch) increased and the melody expanded. The sounds (frets) in the tune are used at wide intervals. Music in the Uyghurs period has become one of the indispensable elements of state, society and individual life, religious and state ceremonies, feasts, feasts and entertainments and daily life by being much more developed, much more diversified and enriched in all respects compared to the Gokturks period. Plano Caprini says that in the meetings held at Batu Khan's palace in 1246, the Khan only sat while listening to music. The same observations are also found in the travel book of the famous traveler Marco Polo. It is stated that the Mongolian army sang while waiting for an attack order before the battle. Against the Westerners' persistent efforts to attribute Turkish music to Arabs and Iranians, Arabs said that there was no important music before Islam, that there were some monotonous melodies used in daily life as appropriate, that they were called "Hud'a". singing and music" section. After Islam, the Arab world took the first step on the path of empire, with the old cultures, especially the VIII. and IX. centuries, the remains of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization and the Turks. As cultural exchange became more frequent by taking new countries, he got to know a musical art that was in these places and was quite developed compared to those centuries. The acceptance of Islam by the Turks approximately IX. coincides with the end of the century. This ancient culture, which was moved to the West with great migrations before Islam, fused with the cultures there and caused the birth of different music genres. Another subject that will contribute to the researches of the source of Turkish Music with strong clues is our old musical instrument, the "Çeng". "It is very remarkable that both the rebap and the çeng are not Arabic or Persian instruments, as it is thought, but that they came from the Asian provinces, which were the homeland of Mevlana. Bela Bartok said that the most essential feature in Hungarian music is the five-voice system and that the Volga- He states that the melodies of İdil Çeremis and Northern Turks are the source of Hungarian music in terms of their five-voice characteristics. This system influenced Eskimo, Aztec and Inca music through the Bering Strait in terms of system, melody and instrument. Therefore, Adnan Saygun "Five-voice music is the hallmark of Turkish music." After the positive environment provided by the Abbasids, Turkish music opened up to the Islamic world with the Karahanlı and Ghaznavid domination, while it entered the Islamic world with the Great Seljuk sovereignty and the Great Turkish migration that took place thanks to this sovereignty. with vitality, mobility, diversity and richness. With this, it became the most effective music in the world. While focusing on the sources of Turkish music, it will be necessary to take a look at scientific research, the lives of those who made these researches, and the works they wrote. Because these people have helped our sound art to be developed by processing for centuries and to be placed on solid foundations built with mathematical and physical rules. At the beginning of these scientists is the famous Turkish philosopher Farabi.

» Farabi (870-950)

» Safi al-Din Abdul Mumin Urmavi (?-1294)

» Abdulkadir Meragi (1353?-1435)

» Gazi Giray Khan (1554-1607)

XVII. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

It is the century of great development of Turkish music. Composition and performance are very advanced. The line left in the 15th century in musicology is inaccessible, but valuable edvars continue to be written. The most famous one is the edvar of the young composer Prince Kantemiroğlu of Moldavia at the end of the century. Hundreds of instrumental works written with the abced notation attached to this work constitute very valuable material.

» Hafiz Post (1630?-1694)

XVIII. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

XVII. The great progress of Turkish music in the XVIII century. century, it continued at full speed. The great composers who had grown up fulfilled all the requirements of the classical school and remained loyal to the traditions, and continued to produce many works by adding some innovations they had made. Even in the first decade of this century, the "Classical Period" had reached its peak in the personality of the composer Itri.

» Itri (1640-1712)

» Nayi Osman Dede (1642?-1729)

» Zaharya Efendi (Mir Cemil) (?-1740?)

» Tanburi Mustafa Sergeant (1700?-1770)

» Tab'i Mustafa Efendi (1705?-1770?)

» Dilhayat Kalfa (1710-1780)

» Ali Nutki Dede (1762-1804)

XIX. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

XIX. century is a very important time period for both the East and the West. The "Classical Age" has ended, new artistic movements have developed according to new understandings and traditions, and works of different character have begun to be produced in fine arts branches such as literature, painting, music and sculpture. This trend, which came to Turkish cultural life with a delay of 30-40 years, showed its effect in Turkish music most clearly, had deep repercussions, and "Romantic Literature" was born in our musical art from the middle of the century.

» Numan Agha (1750?-1834)

» Haci Sadullah Agha (1760-1854)

» Sultan III. Selim (1761-1808)

» Abdulbaki Nasır Dede (1765-1821)

» Kemani Ali Agha (1765-1770? - 1830)

» Abdürrahim Kunhi Dede (1769-1831)

» Zeki Mehmed Agha (1776-1846)

» Hammami-zade İsmail Dede Efendi (1778-1845)

» Şakir Ağa (1779-1840)

» Sultan II. Mahmud Khan (1785-1839)

» Basmaci Abdi Efendi (1787-1851)

» Arif Mehmed Agha (1794?-1843)

» Dellal-zade İsmail Efendi (1797-1869)

» Mustafa İzzet Efendi (Kazasker) (1801-1876)

» Suyolcuzade Salih Efendi (1806-1862)

» Hashim Bey (1814-1868)

» Tanburi Büyük Osman Bey (1816-1885)

» Kömürcü-zade Hafız Mehmet Efendi (?-1885?)

» Rifat Bey (1820-1888)

» Zekai Dede (1825-1897)

» Nevres Pasha (1826-1872)

» Neyzen Salim Bey (1829-1884)

» Hacı Arif Bey (1831-1885)

» Nikogos Agha (1836-1885)

» Hacı Faik Bey (?-1890)

» Tanburi Ali Efendi (1836-1902)

» Mahmut Celaleddin Pasha (1839-1899)

» Neyzen Aziz Dede (1840?-1905)

» Civilized Aziz Efendi (1842-1895)

» Mehmet Celaleddin Dede Efendi (1848-1907)

» Shoghi Bey (1860-1891)

XX. Turkish Music and Composers in the Twentieth Century

XX. The developments and positive or negative efforts made in the name of Turkish Music in the time period from the beginning of the century to the present draw attention. Considering the form and curriculum at the Ankara State Conservatory in 1936, it was understood that the state would not take up this task. Darülelhan, which was tried in Istanbul and became a Turkish Music Conservatory, was later unsuccessfully transferred to the Istanbul Municipality and left to its own fate. At this time, "radio", a technical development, entered our country without delay. The same propaganda had its effect here as well, and the broadcast of Turkish Music was banned here as well. It was a beneficial development for our music history during these dates. For this development, we can say that our musical art has survived. Ankara Radio, which was put into service in 1938, acted like a conservatory in terms of its teaching staff, education system, understanding of discipline in art and seriousness, and trained artists with a contemporary understanding. A new order was given to musical performance, a library of notes was established, and a radio archive was created. A printing press was even set up in the radiohouse for a uniform notation system. These studies were abandoned for various reasons at the time when they would be fully productive. It is possible to find traces of this beautiful understanding in the working system of Ankara Radio even today. XX. Atatürk, who left his mark on 19th century Turkey, reminded Turks that he was Turkish, and made a series of "revolutions" by risking all kinds of risks to bring our country to the level of modernity, of course, could not ignore the characteristics of Turkishness and Turkish art. This great person did not want all traces of Turkish in every branch of art to be erased. It is possible to find traces of this thought in our paintings and architectural works that were produced at that time. Based on this idea, he established historical and linguistic institutions, and especially expressed the glorification of Turkish at every opportunity. As stated above, Atatürk aimed not to change civilization, but to raise our national assets to the level of contemporary civilization.

» Violin Tatyos Efendi (1858-1913)

» Kanuni Haci Arif Bey (1862-1911)

» Rahmi Bey (1864-1924)

» Muallim İsmail Hakkı Bey (1865-1927)

» Ahmet Avni Konuk (1868-1938)

» Ahmed Efendi (Ahmed Irsoy) (1869-1943)

» Khaled Lemi Atli (1869-1945)

» Altitude Elkutlu (1869-1948)

» Suphi Zühdü Ezgi (1869-1962)

» Rauf Yekta Bey (1871-1935)

» Tanburi Cemil Bey (1873-1916)

» Bimen Şen (1873-1943)

» Hüseyin Sadeddin Arel (1880-1955)

» Mehmed Fahri Kopuz (1882-1968)

» Suphi Ziya Özbekkan (1887-1966)

» Sedat Öztoprak (1890-1947)

» Ali Riza Sagman (1890-1965)

» Şerif Muhiddin Targan (1892-1967)

» Refik Fersan (1893-1965)

» Hafiz Sadeddin Kaynak (1895-1961)

» Zeki Arif Ataergin (1896-1964)

» Şerif İçli (1899-1956)

» Munir Nureddin Selcuk (1899-1981)

» Neveser Kökdeş (1900-1962)

» Yesari Asim Arsoy (1900-1992)

» Selahaddin Pinar (1902-1960)

» Osman Nihat Akin (1905-1959)

» Ferit Alnar (1906-1978)

» Emin Ongan (1906-1985)

» Tanburi Ömer Altug (1908-1965)

» Mehmet Resat Aysu (1910-1999)

» İsmail Baha Sürelsan (1912-1998)

» Selahattin İçli (1923-)

» Ferit Sidal (1925-2001)

» Dr. Nevzat Atlığ (1925-)

» Alaeddin Slowly (1926-)

» Tarik Kip (1927-2000)

» Avni Anil (1928-2008)

» Bekir Sitki Sezgin (1936-1996)

» Erol Sayan (1936-)

» Cinuçen Tanrıkorur (1938-2000)

» Selahattin Altinbas (1939-2003)


In this section and its contents, the website www.turkmusikisi.com has been used.

A. Percussion Reeds

1) Boards

Çevgan (Military Music)

Spoon (Folk Dance)

Çalpara or Çengi Stick (in Köçekçe and Tavşança)

2) Cymbals

Zil (Halile) (Tekke Music)

Mehter Bell (Military Music)

Hittite Sisturum (Military Music.)

Zilli Masha (Folk Dances)

Finger Bell (Old and new Rak Music)

3) Skinny

Kos Military Music

Drum Military and Folk Music

Nakkare Military Music

Kudum Sufism and Classical Music

Circle Classical Music

Def Fasıl Music

Bendir Sufi Music

Nevbe Sufi Music

Darbuka Game weather

4) Baked

Glass Cups Soundtrack

Bowls Soundtrack

Cups Soundtrack
B. Wind Reeds

1) Languages

Zurna Military and Folk Music

Mey Folk Music

Kaval Folk Music

Tulum Folk Music

Sipsi Folk Music

Double Folk Music

Argul Folk Music

Whistle Folk Music

2) Dumbs

Nefir Military Music

Kaval Folk Music

Ney Classical and Sufi Music

Intricate Classical Music

Miskal Classical Music

Pişe Classical Music

Mu Classical Music

Black Reed Classical Music

Komuz Soundtrack

Garmon Harmonica and Soundtrack

Juggler Pipe Fun Music

Mizmar Classical Music
C. Stringed Instruments

1) Strings

Iklik Folk Music

cinematic   Classic music

Violin Classical Music

Rebab Sufi Music

Classical Kemenche Classical Music

Black Sea Kemençe Folk Music

Wood Violin Folk Music

Stringed Tanbur Classical Music

Kabak Violin Folk Music

2) Plectrums

Kopuz Military and Folk Music

Kolca Kopuz Folk Music

Lavta Soundtrack

Cheng (Mugni) Classical Music

Tanbur Classical Music

Oud Classical and Folk Music

Kanun Classical and Folk Music

Santur Classical Music

Saz Family

Cura Folk Music

Cura-Bağlama Folk Music

Baglama Folk Music

Tanbura Folk Music

Dîvan (Meydan) instrument Folk Music

Tar Family

Dombra Folk Music

Dotar Folk Music

Setar Folk Music

Asian Turkish Musical Instruments

Balaban (MEY) Folk Music

Gubuz Folk Music

Koray Folk Music

Sıpızgı Folk Music

Mazhar Folk Music

Giçek Folk Music

Kilkopuz Folk Music

Rubab Folk Music

Nay Folk Music

Kemencha Folk Music

7. Musicology and Bibliography

20th century in Turkish in the sense of musicology and musicologist, music science and music scholar. terms used from the beginning. (47) According to some sources, 19th century. At the end of the 17th century, three intellectual Mevlevi dedes, the sheiks of Yenikapı, Bahariye and Galata Mevlevi Lodges, CeLaleddin, Fahreddin and Ataullah Dede-Ef.s, and three young intellectuals (Rauf Yekta, Subhi, Zühdü and Hüseyin Sadeddin gentlemen) whom they saw as enthusiastic about music, have been around since the 17th century. They refocused on the neglected musicology and directed the sound system of Turkish music to "re-composition according to scientific principles", and they too, in the 15th century. How the "24 unequally spaced sound system in one octave" was achieved, which the Muradname writer Bedr-i Dilşad said "I can't explain the essence, as it is a testament from the masters to keep it a secret, but anyone who has a mind can find it if they try a little" They tried to find out how it could be played,48 and discovered the system used today (for 60 years) in Turkish music, despite the serious differences of opinion that arose later. As this discovery was the most perfect and "scientific" system of Turkish music, these people were also the founders and greatest names of modern Turkish musicology.

In the description in the Introduction of this article, it was stated that Ottoman music was a part of Turkish music and that both its history, system and character could not be considered separately from the history, system and character of Turkish music. Here is the term 'ilm-i edvar', which we used before we took musicology from the West at the beginning of our century, which is not too old in their literature, and the founder and greatest name of this science in the Islamic cultural circle is Safiyüddin Abdülmü'mîn from Urmia (D.1294). ). His Kitabu'l-edudr (Nuruosmaniye, 3.153) and his Risaletu'ş-şerefiyye fî'n-nisabi't-te'lifîyye (Nuruosmaniye, 3.153) that explains the theoretical system on which Turkish, Arabic and Persian music are based in the most clear and robust way that science can reach. DTCF Library 3.410) has never been surpassed by any system proposal in any age. (49) His closest followers, who formed the 'systemic school' together with Safiyüddin, were Kutbüddin from Shiraz (1236-1311), Abdulkaadir from Meraga (d. 1435), Mubarak Shah. (Annotation of Kitabu'l-edvar 1375). Khidr b. Abdullah, Dilşad, Ladikli, Kantemir, Hızır Ağa, Nasır Abdülbakî Dede [Tedkîk u Tahkik ve Tahrîriyye, both dated 1794 and in Süleymaniye, Nafiz Pasha l.242). Haşim, İsmail Hakkı and Ali Rifat Beys have always interpreted or translated what he taught with some additions. S. Ezgi (1869-1962). Rauf Yekta (1871-1935), Kazım Uz (1872-1938). H. S. Arel (1880-1955). 19th century by E. Karadeniz (1904-1981) and K. Progressive (1910-1986). On the other hand, the theoretical conflicts published since the end of the century did not actually add anything to Safiyüddin's system, but they also confused the issue with new system proposals.(50)

As it is partially indicated in the Sound System article of the small dictionary attached with footnote no. 4 of this article, the fact that a personal style and expression music, whose beauty can only be revealed in the performance of great artists, was sought and what kind of sound system it is based on, and not being satisfied with any of them; It is because we are faced with a sound material such as the sun, which is one of the most complex products of the human brain and the human brain, which can only benefit from the smallest part of its possibilities. (51) According to the possibilities of the Western notation we use today, it is to show with defective (sharp or flat) notes in a maqam scale. The pitches we have to have are actually not the faulty note, but the fixed pitches of that maqam that can make you taste the flavor peculiar to that maqam, apart from the melodic tone specific to that maqam. For example, although the note Mi in the scale of Hüzzam, Karcığar, Süznak makams is always written with the same (4 coma) flat sign, the flavor of these makams can be given by printing separate frets for all three of them; even in different parts of a piece in the same makam—without a transition to another makam—different frets may be required for the same note. Just as it is not possible to explain or interpret Islamic mysticism with the philosophy of the West, it is not possible for Turkish music to be written with a Western notation. It is written, but it is like a pencil copy of a painting with a thousand colors; because Turkish music is not a breakdown music like Western music, but a pitch music.(52)

Considering such features, the only realistic way is; As it has been said since Aristoxenes of Tarentum (4th century BC), music has a metaphysical aspect—before sound, instrument, and note—that this is the language of the fairies in Greek, which is the root of the word music. It means to understand that human emotions and hearing pleasure cannot be analyzed only with physical data, and to accept frankly that the theory should be withdrawn at points that it cannot explain, instead of imposing some numbers and ratios on practice. This is the main principle followed in Ethnomusicology, which is essentially a modern science.

During 600 years in Ottoman music, the first written source (from Hızır b. Abdullah to R. Yekta Bey, large and small, important and unimportant works (theory books, their translations and commentaries, lyric anthologies, notation magazines, etc.) Music-cosmology relations, instrument making, etc.) Even a bibliography list, which will try to include only the most important of these works, most of which are in foreign libraries, microfilms or personal archives and unfortunately almost none of them have been translated into today's Turkish alphabet, is almost the entirety of this article. amount.

Footnotes :

1) Master Yahya Kemal's preference to refer to Ottoman music as "Istanbul music" refers to the art capital, which brought all the arts within the Islamic cultural sphere to the pinnacle of technical perfection and elegance, implying that the poet tends to look at the subject more as an art historian.

2) Turks knew only music as music, either when they were Huns or when they were Ottomans, they either 'nevbet urmuş' (they played war or field music with drums and zurna), or 'çargı köğleş (song) or 'kobzaşmış' (played saz) said. "The classical lyric compositions called "Erzurum Divanı", "Urfa Divanı", "Elazığ Divanı", depending on the city names, and saz suites such as 'Konya Peşrevi' were performed with instruments such as ney, kudum, oud, qanun, etc., which are called 'classical' today.

4) Theater artist N.Özdogru says, "We can liken Dede. Itrî, Hafız Post to crystal: clear, clean, dense, bright ... ... It gets smaller. you get smaller, you get smaller inside the crystal grain; you get lost in eternity. (We Must Love Turkish Music, Milliyet gaz.. 8.12.1971).

5) Not because Turkish musicians, who did not give much credit to any of the many notation systems developed since the notation writing of the Uighurs called ayalgu, did not write the notation of their works purposefully, preferring to entrust the feelings and style to the ears and souls of those who understand, rather than to papers. In other words, they were not "knowledge of notes", but as they knew that "the music is not recorded in the notation recording", as stated by some Western conductors, they could not write their works and could never perform notes to their students. Just like the Great Couperin (1668-1733), who did not write down the notation of his works in full and left them with empty note heads and taught his students personally, 17.18. century. A reminder of the performers' habits of playing, especially by disrupting heavy parts with melodic and rhythmic additions, the warning "arcate sostenute e come sta" at the beginning of the 4/2 Grave part of the Christmas Concerto (op.6, no.8) (1714) like Corelli who had to write. As a matter of fact, music such as Jazz and Flamenco, where solo performance and therefore improvisation predominate, do not have notes. Therefore, it cannot be claimed at all that the notes of classical Turkish music written later are "authentic" (that is, as the Composer sang or played). The music we perform "as we know" by looking at papers called musical notes, emulating Westerners, is an architecture that we sense dimly through emotion behind a frosted glass, or music that is the projection of our own level of taste and comprehension - like blind people trying to describe an elephant by touching it. This is the feature that makes Turkish music beautiful (indirectly, unfortunately, many times ugly), but always very difficult and slippery, only in the hands of great performers.

6) Bela Bartok, who traveled to Anatolia with Adnan Saygun to collect folklore, also stated that Turks do not like to sing in choir (Turkish Folk Song Collections, Philharmonic. P. 13. Ank. 1949).

7) Due to the disease of Western imitation that has been inflicted since the Tanzimat, unison choirs of 40-50 people emulating church or opera choirs, and saz committees of 20-30 people accompanying them (6-7 pieces of each instrument type) and orchestra conductors emulating this The conductors waving in front of the inevitable cacophony choirs have haunted Turkish music since the 1940s.

8) I was content with only two examples: the founder of the classical Turkish tanbur school, the great composer Isak Fresco Romano being Jewish, the III. It was not a problem for him to teach the sultan in Selim's palace. Again III. The first of Selim's incentives to research the most practical notation for Ottoman music was Hampartsum Limoncuyan, an Armenian, despite the rivalry of Nasır Abdulbaki Dede, who was a Mevlevi like the sultan.

9) Aside from great composers and performers such as Zaharya, Isak, Nikoğos, Andon, Vasil, Tatyos, Bimen, Yorgo, Nubar and great instrument makers such as Uzunyan, Baron, Manol, Onnik, Turkish music has almost all the notes of classical pieces available today. Ufki is indebted to the patronage of foreign and minority musicians who admire Ottoman culture, such as Kantemir, Hampartsum, Mandoli and Hancıyan.

10) Especially if the nationality of musical instruments were determined according to the language root of the name they bear, Zil, Zurna, Saz and Violin would be old Iranian, Guitar (ar and Kanuna old Greek), Drum, whose root goes back to Sanskrit tap onomatope, would be old Indian, Piano would be Italian. We should have said the instrument.

11) For example, the origin of the term 'tik arba' used in the theory of Arabic music is "upright barley" (see HS Arel. Who Is Turkish Music? Ist. 1G69. p. 38): successful peşrevs", El-Çalgı Bağdadî "Bağdad Saz Heyeti means "maqamçi" and "gazelhan".

12) For example: der-makam-i Geveşt, melesh Devrikebir, vezn-i sagir, Kantemir, or Ferahnak, Murabba in Ağır Çenber ikaa, Şakir Ağa; Whoever slant ider sees with this husn, eygülfem you (Lyrics: Mardî Mahmut Ef.), et al.

13) Tatar, Khan of Crimea II. It is the name of Gazi Giray among the Ottoman musicians.

14) Numerous examples on this subject are found in Baron d'Erlanger's La musique arabe, Salim al-Hulw's al-Muvashatat af-Andalusia (Beirut. 1960) and Muhammad Kamil al' Hulayî's Kitabu musiqi al- It is available in his sharqi (Cairo. 1904).

15) The Byzantine historian Menandros, in his Historia de Abaris (Avar History), says that the Romans were first astonished and then devastated by the sound of the drums, muffled and loud like the roar of wild animals mixed with thunder, at every contact with the Asian armies (Gazimihal. Musical Dictionary. Ist. 1961, Drum article).

16) Italian literary priest Giambatista Toderini says in his three-volume memoir, titled Letteratura Turchesca, published in Venice in 1787, "The harmony of the mehter ensemble is truly magnificent on feast days, the navy, the giving birth of lady sultans, etc." (CI, Ch. VI. p. 239).

17) Apart from Evliya, d'Ohsson and Hammer, Şükrullah, Behcetu't-tevarih: Aşık Paşazâde, Tevarihi Âli Osman: Nişancı Mehmet Paşa, Tevarihi Âli Osman; Dursun Bey, History-i Ebulfeth are the main sources on this subject.

18) Fatih abolished the custom of listening to the nevbet standing up, but replaced it with the law of reciting the nevbet twice a day (at dawn and nightfall) in Nevbet households in various parts of the city.

19) It can be guessed that this term was coined by analogy with the web-footed Cormorant that waddles in the sea.

20) The works of Gazimihal, which tells the history of Turkish military music from its beginning to the present, and the relevant articles in Pakalın's dictionary. Farmer's Turkish Influence in Millitary Music (London 1950) and H.Sanat's Mehter Music (Istanbul 1964), which features the main mehter notes available by Ali Ufki and Kantemir, are the most valuable contemporary works on this subject.

21) IV. Mehmed's ambassador to Vienna, Kara Mehmed Pasha, not only entered the city with a large mehter ensemble, but also had the Viennese listen to mehter concerts every day in Leopoldstadt, where he lived. II. Frederik's adjutant, Baron von der Trenck, while entering Vienna in 1741, at the head of the "savages" unit formed by Austria against the Ottomans, led a mehter team consisting of 4 zurna players, 4 trumpet players and 4 cymbals in front of the soldiers, and he fascinated the Viennese with this. (Dr. Uwe Harten, Alla Turca'Turkish Elements in Music, The Turks and what they left to us, Aus österreichs Wissenschaft, Vienna 1978. pp.82-84). Aufden Spuren der Türken writer Georg Schreiber says, "If military bands still give concerts in the squares today, they do so by emulating the now-forgotten Panduras imitating Trenck's janissaries" (Turkden Kalan, trans. E. Nermi. ist. 1982. p. 309).

22) The word band has an interesting association with Mehterhâne: Mehterhâne, a 2,000-year-old Turkish military musical institution, was abolished by the Turks only 100 years after it was copied by the Westerners, and just as a Western imitation music was put in its place, in the 18th century Italianate. The word bend, which means banner (in tabl u bend idiom), which entered in the form of a band, also returned to the Turkish language in the form of a brass band, that is, again in Western guise, (Fetis. La musique mise a la portee de tout le monde, Paris 1860.s.298 ).

23) The unrivaled cymbals, made by the Zilciyan family of Istanbul since 1623 and made famous all over the world as Turkish cymbals, were used for the first time in the 1680 opera Esther of the famous German violinist-composer Strungk. These cymbals are also used in the Paris Opera Orchestra. In the First World War, the Germans and Austrians conducted the mehter çevgan called Schellenbaum (felek) in front of their armies. In summary, the mehter was abolished, but neither the living drum-zurna nor the world-renowned memory of village weddings and wrestlers' wrestling could be erased.

24) It was a dervish, that is, a human being, not the food that was cooked in the matbah-ı şerif, which is the education section of the Mevlevihanes with a large program called Asit Hane.

25) The notes of the Mevlevi rites, by the musicologist Rauf Yekta Bey. Dr. Subhi Ezgi, Zekai Dedezâde Hafiz Ahmed Ef. and that he started publishing with the composer Ali Rıfat Çağatay. It can be found in the Mevlevi Ayinleri, which was published in 13 volumes as a publication of the Istanbul Conservatory in 1939, and also in the Mevlevi Ayinleri (Konya. 1979) published as a publication of the Konya Tourism Association by Sadettin Heper.

26) The strange term conjugal, which we have taken from the French "musique" in the general sense as "music" and the military one from the Italian "musica" as "harmonica" and added to the Persian "hümâyun" meaning "palace" Even so, isn't it a concise example to show what we understand by contemporary language culture?

27) Most of the blows he received came from his followers (most of whom were the son of famous musicians like 'Giriftzen Asım Bey's Son Musa Süreyya), who lost his balance due to either the Western culture they were familiar with or the temptations of revolutionism. Turkish music has been taught in a state conservatory, again in 1975' It would be reunited in the past half a century, and of course—as in many areas—after much had been lost.

28) Cantemir's tanbur teacher Angell (D.1690), Enderun head dynasty, Composer Taşçızâde Receb Çelebi (D.1701) and Mevlevi dervish İsmâil Şeyda (D.1859) are among the most famous of the Enderun teachers who were assigned to teach concubines in their homes.

29) As an institution, we are content to remind the great performers such as Farabi, Safiyüddin, Kutbüddin, Meragi and Zeynelabidin as individual values, the Hun military band that the Seljuks would develop as Nevbethane and the Ottomans as Mehterhâne, and the straw/bard and kopuz music of Central Asia.

30 ) In the articles or encyclopedia articles published recently, the development stages of Ottoman music are either classified according to centuries (14th to 19th centuries) or pre-classical, classical, romantic etc. analyzed by dividing into periods or schools. However, in both methods, an evaluation and synthesis of the musical issue, together with the political-economic-social conditions of the century or period in question, could not be made -from the eyes of both an art historian and a history philosopher, as Kantemir did in his own Ottoman history- in cause-effect relations; It has been renewed with short biographical information about composers and music writers who lived in that century or art period, and lists listing their works. The approach of foreigners to the issue is very different from this. Valter Feldman, associate professor of Turkish Languages/music theorist/kudumzen at Princeton University, titled Turkish-Ottoman Music in a booklet titled 'Maqam', published in 1987 (on the occasion of the Islamic World Festival), in its small volume, covers the subject as "the development of maqam/form theory in history, the development of musical repertoire, It is an important example in terms of its enrichment with the encouragement of the palace and its approach in three basic aspects in the style of Enderun-Mehterhâne-Mevlevihâne triple chain of succession.

31) This is also true for Western music with some differences.

32) Mevlidi 16th century. It was composed by Sekban from Bursa, one of the late artists, and Übeyd Ef. (d. 1656), from him Mevlidi Osman Ef. and from him Elhac Mustafa Ef. (d. 1720) and got permission to study (Gazimihal. Music in Bursa, Bursa 1943. pp. 12.13.15). thus, they ensured that this magnificent work, whose score could not be written because it was illegal, was passed down from generation to generation.

33) Yavuz took his last breath in the arms of Hafiz Composer Hasan Can Çelebi, one of the great Artists he brought from Tabriz.

34) Y. Erdener. Should Folk Songs Be Made Polyphonic for Chorus? Ministry of Culture l. Proceedings of the International Turkish Folklore Congress. Ank. 1977. C.III. ss. 199-230. .

35) Mehter peşrevs of Behram Ağa, Han Can and Emir-1 Hajj have survived to our time because their notes were written by Ali Ufkî and Kantemir.

36) The one who played the old Turkish harp named Cheng.

37) The one who plays the six-stringed plectrum from the Kopuz family.

38 Bk2. prof. Bedrettin Tuncel. Dimitrie Kantemir and the Turks. UNESCO Turkish National Commission publication. Ank. 1975. pp. 40-41.

39 Ahmed Çelebi, known as a violinist before Rıza Ef. (1780-1852), (Kantemir's teacher and the Artist who had the first sine violin taken to the palace in 1779), İsmâil Ef., Cafer Ağa, Corci, Hızır Ağa Miron, İzak, Artists such as Todori, Haropartsum, İbrahim Ağa and Ali Ağa are all actually 'sinekemani': This instrument, the "viola d'amore" of the West, was introduced into Ottoman music in the 17th century, long before the violon today. entered later. (see ANOran. Violin and Turkish Music Music Journal. p. 314. December 1975. p. 8).

40 Foreign writers such as Prince Klemens von Metternlch-Winneburg and Adolphe Slade have also mentioned in their memoirs and letters the dangerous consequences of their pretensions that make the innovator sultan seem charming to foreigners.

41) The proliferation of works in the form of songs also caused a change in the classical fasil scheme, and the songs that were previously placed between Ağırsemâî and Yuruk semâî in the classical chapter—again in the order from slow to caliph—were in the 20th century. Fasıl, which also eliminated classical large-form works with its predominance from the beginning, is managed by a dwarf hanende, where songs composed with tempos ranging from Ağır Aksaksemâi (10/4) and Ağıraksak (9/4) to Yurkaksak (9/16) are connected with aranagme. has turned into a kind of entertainment music in which improvised sound and instrumental variations are permissible.

42) In some dictionaries and encyclopedias, it has been seen that Hacı Arif Bey is mentioned as "neo-classical" and titled "Romantic or Neo-classical School". However, Arif Bey is a romantic, but not neo-classical (romanticism and neo-classicism are not synonymous terms that can be connected to each other with the conjunction "or", they are separate things). Neo-Classicism – unlike romanticism – is neither an era nor a school: it is just an aesthetic concept and excitement. For example, Weber and Schubert are romantically humorous, but with classical forms: Zekaî Dede and Tanbûrî Ali Ef, who composed Vasıf exactly. as. SZ Özbekkan (1887-1966), a romantic composer. Fuzuli, Nabi. He is neo-classical in his religious pieces with his Beste and Semâîs composed by Nefî and Nev'i. MNSelçuk, a contemporary composer, is also neoclassical, but not romantic, with his works such as "I'm not swayed by your soul" and "Pull the shovels, let the moonlight not wake up", because that era is over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Even Stravinsky became neo-classical again in his mature works (such as Debussy. Ravel. Honegger and Prokouev). French musicologist Andre Coeuroy says, "This development is natural, when the Revolutionist calms down, he returns to the source" (Larousse de la Musique. Paris 1957. C. II. p. 101.)

43) Although Cemil's very fluent, dynamic and contemporary musical performance, which is at the same time didactic, stands in the middle, the reason for the sluggish and increasingly vulgar "voice me, sazı timtım" performance that has prevailed in Turkish music for nearly 30 years is the lack of culture as a result of lack of education. and lovelessness.

44) Except for its Persian meaning saz, in all other languages, instrument consists of two words that mean musical instrument (eng.. musical instrument, Ar. el'alet al-musîqî, etc. This is why it is wrong to say 'instrumental instrument'; saz On the other hand, it has many different meanings in Persian apart from instrument.

45) From Arif Ef., a judge of Istanbul and an Anatolian qazasker muderris, to whom Zeki Mehmed Ağa, a student of Tanburi Isak, went to bid farewell before going on pilgrimage. When he said, "I am going on pilgrimage, I will repent of the instrument there and will not play it again", "Play it, my son, play it even in Arafat." The anecdote to which he got the answer is famous.

46) See. HGFarmer. Turkish Instruments of Music... (foreword) Longwood Press, Portland (USA) 1976.

47 Our eagerness to give the title of musicologist (or the greatest choirmaster) to those who have written a dictionary, method or a few articles on music, given lectures, translated, although they have little to do with the education or ordeal of being a musician—if they are our friends. It is proof that some terms, whose meanings and disciplines are clear in their instruments, can completely change not only their nationality, but also their personalities, from blood type to eye color, when switching to other languages.

48) That is, not to investigate how many pitches the Turkish music sound system is based on in an octave, but to find 24 intervals, which they consider as "kaziyye-i muhkeme".

49) See. Y. Tura. Issues of Turkish Music. Pan Publishing. Istanbul 1988. p. 174-204.

50) Since the purpose of this article is not to discuss the theoretical system on which Ottoman music is based, the explanation of the gaps in the new system proposals will not be explained here. In addition to the facts that will emerge from the examination of the relevant parts of the work given in the previous footnote, I have sufficed to state that there are points that have to be left unanswered in many subjects from fault signs to the description and classification of the maqam, from the procedures to the equipment in the Arel-Ezgi system used today in Turkish music.

(51) Just as when examining subatomic particles, it is necessary to identify with the examiner, and in order to examine the micro intervals of Turkish music, which is a kind of war of electrons, it is necessary to identify with these tiny intervals.

52) The Arel-Ezgi system is unrealistic as it is a tempering proposal that wants to apply the Western series, which has only two primary colors in its palette, black and white, to Turkish music.

Source: www.turkmusikisi.com

bottom of page