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Gultekin AYDOGDU


Chapter Chief
Fasıl is the name given to 2 compositions and 2 semai composed by a composer in the same maqam in Turkish music. Dede Efendi's Sultan-ı Yegâh faslı means 2 compositions and 2 semai (Ağır and Yuruk Semai) composed by the composer in that maqam.

1. The composition is composed with slow-character usûls such as Darb-ı Fetih, Ağır Çenber, Darbeyn.

2. Composition daba yürük is lively and short. It is composed with usûls like light and Muhammes.

Fasıl, in its broad sense, is a concert program.

In this concert, the works are performed by ordering them according to their usûl, provided that they are from the same maqam. Like Rast Faslı, Mahur Faslı.

The order of these chapters in the old performances is as follows:

Head taksim with any saz, Peşrev, 1. Beste or Kar, 2. Composition, Heavy Semai, various songs, Yuruk Semai, Saz Semai, and if desired, a play mood.

Apart from connecting the songs with arağme, it is customary to perform Taksim with Saz or recite Gazel with Söz.

Today, with a wrong practice in Fasıl, this has turned into a solo work by some conductors. In the traditional Fasıl performance, there is not a single artist's solo reading apart from Gazel and Taksim.

Usuls are listed according to the order of movement, and the Yuruk and live usuls, such as Düyek, Yuruk Aksak, are left at the end. Sons can also be read in Türkü or Köçekçe.

Reeds in these communities have undergone various changes throughout history.

Instruments such as Santur, Rebab, Lute have been forgotten, and since the 19th century, the violin has replaced the Sine violin and the Clarinet has spread. viola Western instruments such as the violoncello began to be seen frequently.

In the past, Fasıl Committees of 80 people, consisting of 40 Hanende + 40 Sazende, also gave concerts. Ser-Hânen was also conducting with the Moroccan Def in his hand.

Mes'ut Cemil Bey, who became the Turkish Music Conductor of Ankara Radio in 1940, has been directed by a conductor in Fasıl, such as Classical Choirs and others, since his time.


Crowded vocal ensemble used to be called Küme Faslı. It was established to provide a wide and high sound volume within the monophonic structure of our music and to announce it to a wide audience.

The most crowded of these ensembles, which played in palaces, big long divanhanes and then in recreation areas such as Okmeydanı and Kağıthane in Istanbul in the second half of the 19th century, is the one that was performed by the pool on the Silahtar Ağa farm on November 9, 1823.


It is not a crowded saz and vocal ensemble like the cluster faslı.

Major works are not included in the list of works. The song is predominantly Turkish.

It was performed by a small number of musicians, like chamber music, in places such as Palace, Kiosk, Konak or houses and Tekke Square.

One of the 18th century European travelers, Ottoman Literature, Culture and

TODERINI, who knows his music well, distinguishes İNCE SAZ-KABA SAZ.

He describes the set consisting of Mehterhane and Savaş instruments as KABA SAZ, and the set consisting of other chamber music instruments as FINE SAZ.

In the years following the Second Constitutional Monarchy, Turkish Music concerts open to the public for the first time began to be given in Istanbul. These concerts with the participation of Tanburi CEMİL BEY are held in TEPEBAŞI casino and they are groups of 15 people .

3. During the westernization movements that started in the years of .SELİM (1789-1807), Fasıl Music was also influenced and divided into two.

F ASL-I CEDID, which also includes western instruments, and the traditional Fasıl Committee FASL-I ATİK.


The structure of the traditional fasil programs, which continue on TRTANKARA, ISTANBUL and Izmir Radios, mostly consists of a combination of 30-40 Ses and 15-20 Saz Artists and is conducted under the direction of a chief in the Western sense.

Since the 1950s, it has been called only by the names of the Offices, such as KÜRDİLİHİCAZKAR FASLI, MAHUR FASLI, NİHAVEND FASLI.

Hanendeler-SOUND ARTISTS, Sazendeler-SAZ ARTISTS have changed as Ser Hanende FASIL CHAIR or DIRECTOR.

The contents of the program consist of Peşrev, Agir Aksak, Sengin Semai, Devr-i Hindi, Türk Aksağı, Aksak, Düyek., Curcuna, Yuruk Semai, Yuruk Aksak and Saz Semai, and are colored and performed in flow with Ara Taksimi and Gazel.

It is an indisputable fact that today's Fasıl Programs, consisting of a mixture of old traditional Fasıl genres and the most beautiful and moving pieces of song form, can only be listened to on TRT Kurumu RADIO and TV.

Detail examples for Chapter Programs:

This detail for a 30-minute chapter program; may be extended with additions in accordance with the procedures.

Nihavend Moroccan

Hejaz Moroccan

Kurdilihicazkar Moroccan




-My beloved, won't you do me a favor and come to my aid?

My life increases as I look at you with perestish

It is the hand of weeping sinemi.

I'd pull you out a thousand roses from the ashes in my heart

How quickly the years passed between those days

He loved the oppressor like himself and was burning.

-Take a look at the pensive water in the bay and you'll see

Even if you fade, you're still smiling - you're a pink dehen

Nice loved, nice burned, nice connected heart

-There is no other place's grace neither from summer nor from winter

There is no wound to resemble a tongue wound

you were mine




-Again this year, the island did not fit me at all without you.

Bring your green eyes to my horizon

My face is merry, my memory is merry, my council is merry

-Where have you been, O serv-i nazim

The lust of my silver-haired half giving life

If I were a flower that gives joy to your merry eyes

-Come to Camlica, my beautiful, tonight

Reeds are played in the gardens of Çamlıca

I look for you in the sky every night

-Sazsemai or Longa




Bayati Araban Moroccan

Muhayyer Moroccan

Rast Moroccan




It burned my heart to hijra oh that mehveş

You were the one listening in the most beautiful leyl of Nev-bahar

What blood did your Cesm-i executioner shed?

A good angel made me

I walked, I walked, I beat my hijra last night

This pleasure-u safâ sahn-i çemenzâre

I'm in love with you without a doubt

My heart trembles whenever you come to me

Esti nesimi nev spring

To the moment of trusting the hopeless husn

Your beauty is out of sight because it's gone

Let a rose be put in the color of Leb-i




Do you think I'm ignorant, my dear?

The setting day looks like blood

Be mine alone, don't look at your face

I can't be for a moment

Let's drink sâkî, come with dem-sâz

Another rose-nihal took my heart

I entered the vineyard, the moon came out

I couldn't cut the meadow fine

I loved you with a thousand souls





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